Posts Tagged ‘dopamine’

Opioid receptors

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A sub-population of the striatal direct-pathway neurons, known for being connected to voluntary movement, can be the basis of opiate-reward driven activities. The brain’s opioid system is basic to the reward value of stimuli and consequent behaviours. Opioid receptors bind to the brain’s opioid peptides such as enkephalin, β-endorphin, or dynorphin. μ-opioid receptors act to suppress the neuronal activity of neurons that otherwise…

Dopamine, reward and aversion

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Dopamine neurons represent reward but not aversion Christopher D. Fiorillo, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Science, vol 341, 2 August 2013 Summary of the above article The study shows that while midbrain dopamine neurons are activated by evidence of reward, and suppressed by lack of reward, and are also capable of signalling prediction error relative to reward level, they are , however, not responsive to aversion. This suggests that reward and aversion are represented Read more […]

Neurobiology of preferences

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The Neurobiology of Preferences Mkael Symmonds & Raymond Dolan, University College London In:- Neuroscience of Preference and Choice – Eds. – Raymond Dolan & Tali Sharot Keywords:  neuroscience of preference/choice, consciousness, orbitofrontal, dopamine P. As far back as the 1960s neuroscience had demonstrated a clear correlation between laboratory rats pressing a lever apparently for pleasure and the electrical stimulation of subcortical dopamine structures. The dopamine system Read more […]

Learning in the nucleus accumbens

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Learning and memory: Teaching the accumbens a valuable lesson Nature Reviews Neuroscience 14, 2-3, January 2013, doi.1038/nrn3419 Dopamine is the neurotransmitter most involved in learning from environmental stimuli. This involves projections from neurons in the ventral tegmental (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens in the basal ganglia. This paper discusses an additional influence involving projections of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. These also project from the ventral tegmental to the Read more […]

Dopamine and motivation

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The influence of dopamine in generating action from motivation Mark Walton, Jerylin Gan & Paul Phillips In:-  Neural Basis of Motivational and Cognitive Control  –  MIT Press (2011) Keywords:  dopamine, midbrain, basal ganglia, nucleus accumbens, opioid neurotransmitters The release of dopamine into the striatum and particularly the nucleus accumbens is closely related to the subjective evaluation of sensory inputs, and to the subsequent selection of behaviour and actions. The Read more […]

Dopamine and decisions

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Dopamine and conscious decision making Anthony Grace In:- New Horizons in the Neuroscience of Consciousness This chapter discusses the interaction of the prefrontal cortex, the ventral subiculum in the hippocampal region and the dopamine system. These interact in particular in the nucleus accumbens area of the basal ganglia. This is important with respect to their role in decision making and behavioural responses. Dopamine also helps to establish long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term Read more […]

Orbitofrontal and cingulate

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Emotionality, orbitofrontal & cingulate Positive emotionality is associated with baseline metabolism in orbitofrontal cortex and in regions of the default network N. D. Volkow Molecular Psychiatry (2011) 16, pp. 818-25 http://www.nature.com/mp/ This paper looks at the connections between dopamine, the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices and their influence on positive emotionality and also resting, introspective states that are not attending much to external signals. In other Read more […]