Posts Tagged ‘attention’

Dorsal and ventral attention

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Macaque monkeys are often used as models in neuroscience. However, there are important differences between macaques and humans. Humans have a larger dorsal attention network, indicating that evolution has augmented this network. Biases in visual searches are different as between the two species, and

The Conscious Brain

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Author: Jesse J. Prinz, Published by Oxford University Press (2012) Summary and review of the above book INTRODUCTION: Prinz argues that a theory of consciousness requires a process, and also a location in the brain for that process to take effect. The direction of attention is seen as necessary and sufficient for consciousness to arise. The location is argued to be the secondary or intermediate cortex. Consciousness generated in this area is then used by the working memory for deliberative processing; Read more […]

Neuroscience of Attention

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Ed. George R. Mangun. Oxford University Press (2012) Summary and review of the above book INTRODUCTION:  Voluntary attention is shown to be involved with slower and more deliberative processing, as opposed to the quick reaction of involuntary attention. Voluntary attention involves the frontal brain regions dealing with both emotional/evaluative and planning/working memory processing; these are some of the areas most closely correlated to conscious experience. They are thought to influence Read more […]

Emotional influences on attention

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By Harlan M. Fichtenholtz & Kevin S. Labar, YaleUniversity and DukeUniversity. Published In:-  The Neuroscience of Attention Ed. George R. Mangun, Oxford University Press (2012) Summary and review of the above chapter INTRODUCTION:-  Attention and emotion are argued to be parallel processes interacting at many stages in the brain. Some brain regions are more involved with emotional response and others more with attentional control. Limbic regions act so as to bias sensory processing, Read more […]

Top-down biases in short-term memory

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Mark G Stokes & Anna C Nobre, Oxford University Published In:- “The Neuroscience of Attention” Ed. George R. Mangun, Oxford University Press (2012) Summary and review of the above chapter INTRODUCTION:  Top-down influences direct visual attention, and common neural mechanisms decide the items that are held in visual short-term memory, which is in turn a crucial driver of behaviour. Cognitive functions are seen as depending on information being retained in the brain after the original signal Read more […]

Frontal Eye Field and Direction of Attention

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  A Stage Theory of Attention and Action Jeffrey D. Schall & Geoffrey F. Woodman, Vanderbilt Vision Research Centre The Neuroscience of Attention – Ed. George R. Mangun, Oxford University Press (2012) Summary & Review of this Chapter INTRODUCTION: The frontal eye field (FEF) receives converging inputs from many cortical areas, and may use visual representations in working memory to select targets for spatial attention. The decision to shift the gaze is seen as being dependent Read more […]

Attentional selection for locations

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Jens-Max Hopf et al In: The Neuroscience of Attention,  Ed. George R. Mangun Oxford University Press Summary/Review of the above chapter The spatial aspect of the focus of attention is influenced by voluntary or goal-directed requirements. Perceptual processing is seen to be facilitated at attended relative to unattended locations. Inputs from unattended locations tend to be suppressed. EEG research has shown that evoked event-related potentials (ERPs) were larger in sensory areas, such Read more […]

Memory, attention and decision making

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Memory, Attention & Decision-Making (Chapter 3. Reward and punishment-related learning; emotion and motivation) Edmund Rolls, Oxford University Oxford University Press (2008) The author views the orbitofrontal region of the prefrontal cortex as the most important region for determining the value of rewards or punishers. Objects are first represented in the visual, somatosensory and other areas of the cortex without having any aspect of reward value. This only arises in the orbitofrontal Read more […]

Neural basis of freewill

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Peter Ulric Tse MIT Press Summary and review of the above book The author argues for a form of conscious agency that plays a role in the brain’s executive functions and in endogneous attention (attention to issues generated within the brain rather than exogenous signals from outside). Executive functions involve assessing possible behaviours against goals. Qualia are seen as something that can be operated on by endogneous attention. Volitional attention is argued to take place only in relation Read more […]