Archive for the ‘Artificial Intelligence, AI / Computing / Robotics’ Category

Ex Machina and consciousness

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The recent science fiction film, Ex Machina, about the invention of a conscious android takes us straight to the heart of the nature of consciousness. The android, named Ava, has a clear choice, preference and desire to be free from the underground chamber in which she is confined, and also to be free from the direction of her inventor. The inventor, Nathan, asks the other main character, Caleb, to go beyond the Turing test. This is good advice as the Turing test was an annoying distraction Read more […]

Explanatory gap

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The Computational Explanatory Gap James Reggia, Derek Monner & Jared Sylvester :: Journal of Consciousness Studies, 21, No. 9&10, 2014, pp. 153-78 :: www.imprint.co.uk/jcs.html Summary and review of the above paper INTRODUCTION: The durability of the explanatory gap between neural processing and consciousness is seen as surprising given the successes of neuroscience in recent decades. Models of cognitive processing still require external direction, which is exactly what the conscious Read more […]

Chaos theory and Turing’s oracle computer

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Know it all Michael Brooks, based on Emmett Redd & Steven Younger, Missouri State University New Scientist, 19 July 2014 www.newscientist.com/ Summary and review of the above article INTRODUCTION: The proposal for a computer based on a whole range of inputs between fully off and fully on, which could exceed the limitations of the Gödel theorem by operating in an unpredictable and chaotic manner, may throw light on consciousness in the brain. Alan Turing appreciated that the Read more […]

Quantum mechanics and artificial intelligence

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Quantum-enhanced deliberation of learning agents using trapped ions Vedran Dunjko, Nicolai Friis, & Hans Briegel, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Innsbruck University & Ruder Boskovic Institute :: arXiv:1407.2830v1 [quant-ph] 10 Jul 2014  Summary and review of the above paper The authors attempt to use quantum mechanics in the development of artificial intelligence. As part of this scheme, they use a projective simulation (PS) agent a memory system, which is explored by random walks, Read more […]

Turing, Consciousness and Thought

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Stephen Baxter’s short article in the science magazine, Focus, highlights some of the problems that arise in dealing with consciousness in a scientific forum. Baxter suggests that Turing made a correct, or at least insightful decision, in deciding to aim at a test as to whether robots/computers could think like humans, while avoiding the possibly unscientific or undefined area of consciousness. This is not strictly speaking true. Turing appeared to have believed that having a robot/computer that Read more […]

Radical plasticity thesis

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The radical plasticity thesis: How the brain learns to be conscious Axel Cleeremans Frontiers of Psychology (2011) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3110832/ Summary and review of this article Cleeremans starts by discussing the thermostat and by extension other simple automated equipment, which the philosopher, David Chalmers, suggested to be capable of being conscious because they processed information. Cleeremans argues that processing of information, such as levels of Read more […]

Far from the madding brain

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The Robotics Primer Maja J. Mataric MIT Press (2007) Summary and review of this book Introduction:  In the 1960s and 1970s there was an emphasis on building robots that thought, reasoned or deliberated in the manner of humans. The computational load involved made the robots too slow for real world conditions. Since then, and despite the Moore’s law increase in computing power, robotocists have moved away from from anything that has a close resemblance to the human brain. The most common Read more […]

Quantum consciousness

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Quantum consciousness: Reply to Spier & Thomas Stuart Hameroff Trends in Cognitive Science http://www.cell.com/trends/cognitive-sciences/ In this paper, Hameroff replies to criticisms of the Orch OR model by Spier and Thomas. Hameroff justifies the unusual nature of the proposals in the Orch OR model, and its integration of ideas from neuroscience, computing and physics, by the fact new concepts are required to solve ‘the hard problem’ of consciousness. The theory is argued to Read more […]

Kurzweil on the singularity

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Science versus philosophy in the singularity Ray Kurzweil Journal of Consciousness Studies, vol. 19, Nos. 7-8, (2012) This is a somewhat rambling paper. It comprises part of a Journal of Consciousness volume devoted to the singularity. This is the point at which artificial intelligence machines already above the level of human intelligence start to produce an indefinite increase in intelligence, by means of constructing ever more intelligent computers. However, Kurzweil flits from topic Read more […]

Penrose, Godel & artificial intelligence

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A refutation of Penrose’s Godelian case against artificial intelligence Selmer Bringsjord & Hong Xiao Dept. of Philosophy & Cognitive Science Dept. of Computer Science Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute February 2000 This paper is sometimes glibly quoted as a complete refutation of the arguments relative to the Godel theorem and the brain, but in reality the opinions of the authors are much more mixed. The authors emphasise the distinction between ‘Strong Artificial Intelligence’ Read more […]